Saturday, March 18, 2017

New article brings into question how T cell memory should be defined.

New article brings into question how T cell memory should be defined.

We conducted this research to answer a fundamental question in immunology- Where do antigen inexperienced CD4+ T cells reside? 

Currently, it is widely accepted that central and effector memory CD4+ T cells originate from naïve T cells after they have encountered their cognate antigen in the setting of appropriate co-stimulation. However, if this were true the diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences within the naïve T cell compartment should be far greater than that of the memory T cell compartment, which is not supported by TCR sequencing data. In fact the vast majority of T cells with a "memory" phenotype do not appear to have undergone a strong clonal expansion event.

 In our study we demonstrate that aged mice with far fewer naïve T cells, respond to the model antigen, hen eggwhite lysozyme (HEL), by utilizing the same TCR sequence as their younger counterparts. CD4+ T cell repertoire analysis of highly purified T cell populations from HEL-naive animals revealed that the HEL-specific clones, within these mice, displayed effector and central “memory” cell surface phenotypes even though they had never encountered the HEL antigen. Although cross reactivity to some other foreign antigen exposure could have explained these results, the effector and central “memory” HEL-specific T cells that were detected resided at an extremely low frequencies, identical to their frequency within the naive T cell compartment. Thus, any prior cross recognition event was not strong enough to have induced an expansion of the HEL-specific T cells, at least not one that could be detected above the background level that was seen in the naive T cell compartment. In our experiments the HEL-inexperienced CD4+ T cells were found to reside within the naïve, regulatory, central memory, and effector memory T cell populations at similar frequencies.  The vast majority of the other CD4+ T cells within the regulatory and memory populations were also unexpanded.

 These findings support a new paradigm for CD4+ T cell maturation in which a specific clone can undergo a differentiation process to exhibit a “memory” or regulatory phenotype without having undergone a clonal expansion event. They also demonstrate that a foreign-specific T cell is just as likely to reside within the regulatory T cell compartment as it would the naïve compartment, arguing against the specificity of the regulatory T cell compartment being skewed towards self-reactive T cell clones. Finally, we demonstrate that the same set of foreign T cell clones are repetitively generated throughout adulthood.

20 comments:

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    1. Words are empty when spoken. A big thank you to Dr Aziba for using his effective herbal product to reserve my ALS disease. I was diagnosed of ALS disease a year back. My symptoms progressed so very fast that i couldn't do anything. I had tripping, dropping, abnormal fatigue of my leg, slurred speech, muscle cramps and twitches. I was very depressed and had no hope of living. i couldn't resist it than to go deep into research for a cure. On this fateful day, i saw a testimony post concerning a lady who once had ALS disease but was reserved using Dr Aziba Natura Herbal product. At this time, i was skeptical and curious. To cut it short, i visited his WhatsApp on +2348100368288 and i saw so many review which motivated me to make my orders. I received the product and used it as instructed for two weeks. Omg, during the second week of usage, all my symptoms disappeared, today makes it 3 months after usage and i can boldly tell to the public that i have been reserved from ALS disease for 3 years span and after which i will make another orders again after 3 years.. This is more than a miracle, i just can't believe my life is back again. last 2 months i resumed work and i can now do all activities myself without anyone's assistance. You that is out there searching for solution, i have bring good news to you kindly Contact Dr via Email. Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com or reach him directly via WhatsApp +2348100368288 Today marks my birthday. Please lets share this to help others. Thank you Dr Aziba for your Herbal product.

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    2. HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]
      I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem, he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today. I asked him about some popular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, HPV etc.. which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure, he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all...
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      WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]

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  2. I was able to get rid of my herpes virus this year, i was diagnosed of herpes virus since late 2015 and i was on my doctor prescription ever since i have the virus, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the virus out of my system and get rid of the virus,i was going through a blog to find new informations about the Herpes Simplex Virus i came across a review of a lady who was testify on the  cured that the great herbalist cured is virus and  i have to contert him and see what he told me to do for me to get rid of the cure I contacted the herbal foundation and they guided me on how to purchase the herbal formula. the herbal products las me for 3 weeks which helps me to get rid of the virus totally, for easy communication you can reach Dr Freeman Osas on his WhatSapp via +2347057052206 email. balogospellcaster@gmail.com     

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  3. Definitely and totally cured of herpes virus by Doctor Razor's Quick cure for Herpes. My Sincere Gratitude to Dr Razor, I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 November 13 2018, I went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, I was confused because the medical drugs has become my daily food, but i decided to sort after Natural Herbs. One day I sat beside the pool, Browsing and thinking where I could get a solution to end this predicament. I saw a blog on how Dr Razor cured people with his herbal medicine, i did not believe but i just decided to give him a try, Visit Doctor's Razor Website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome . I contacted him and he prepared the herbs for me which I took, and he instructed me to go for a check up, after the test i was confirmed with herpes negative, i am so happy. If you have any problem or you are also infected with any disease, kindly contact him now with his Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or Whatsapp/call +2349065420442 . This testimonial serves as an expression of my gratitude.He also have a herbal cure for COLD SORE,SHINGLES,CANCER(Cannabis Oil),HPV,ASTHMA,IMPOTENCE,BARENESS/INFERTILITY ..Contact him on this email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , or Whatsapp/call his cell phone number on +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  4. Natural herbs have cured so many illness that drugs and injection can’t cure. I've seen the great importance of natural herbs and the wonderful work they have done in people's lives. i read people's testimonies online on how they were cured of HERPES, HIV, diabetics etc by Dr Edes herbal medicine, so i decided to contact the doctor because i know nature has the power to heal anything. I was diagnosed with Herpes for the past 3 years but Dr Edes cured me with his herbs and i referred my aunt and her husband to him immediately because they were both suffering from Herpes but to God be the glory, they were cured too .I know is hard to believe but am a living testimony. There is no harm trying herbs, Thanks. Write him on WhatsApp on +2348151937428. @dr_edes_remedies deals with
    (1)Alzheimer virus
    (2)Cancer
    (3)HIV
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    (7)Virginal infection
    (8)HPV
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    https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWhBHvtpo772EWAEdsFWmWQ

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  5. Quick Cure I will advise you to contact Dr KHAM AT (dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com ) where all problems are solved without stress and delay. My family was getting drawn in sickness, we were all affected one after the other and medical prescription was not helping us. Till a friend's doctor directs us to contact Dr KHAM for quick cure and total cleaning. Dr KHAM is a miracle worker. It is never too late with Dr KHAM contact him today with { dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com  } you can also contact him on Whatsapp +2348159922297, You can Also Visit his website to know more about him at >https://herbal-dr-kham.jimdosite.com/ or visit his Blog at https://drkhamcaregiver.blogspot.com/  
    He also Cure
    1) HIV/AIDs Virus
    2) Hepatitis B and C
    3) Herpes
    4) Cancer
    5) ZIKA VIRUS
    6) COPD
    7) STROKE.
    8) Erectile Dysfunction
    9) Trichomoniasis
    10) Chlamydia
    11) Gonorrhea
    12) HPV
    13) Syphilis        

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  6. Hey everyone. I just wanna tell y’all that I’ve been cured from herpes virus. It only took me Two weeks to be cured finally from this virus and what I did definitely got me cured completely from my HSV2, I’m so happy . When every odd seems to be against me i trusted in the lord. I battled for so long until a friend introduced me to Doctor Kham who was finally able to help me and here i am today healthy and strong. Email this herbalist via dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com that is his contact details.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Words are empty when spoken. A big thank you to Dr Aziba for using his effective herbal product to reserve my ALS disease. I was diagnosed of ALS disease a year back. My symptoms progressed so very fast that i couldn't do anything. I had tripping, dropping, abnormal fatigue of my leg, slurred speech, muscle cramps and twitches. I was very depressed and had no hope of living. i couldn't resist it than to go deep into research for a cure. On this fateful day, i saw a testimony post concerning a lady who once had ALS disease but was reserved using Dr Aziba Natura Herbal product. At this time, i was skeptical and curious. To cut it short, i visited his WhatsApp on +2348100368288 and i saw so many review which motivated me to make my orders. I received the product and used it as instructed for two weeks. Omg, during the second week of usage, all my symptoms disappeared, today makes it 3 months after usage and i can boldly tell to the public that i have been reserved from ALS disease for 3 years span and after which i will make another orders again after 3 years.. This is more than a miracle, i just can't believe my life is back again. last 2 months i resumed work and i can now do all activities myself without anyone's assistance. You that is out there searching for solution, i have bring good news to you kindly Contact Dr via Email. Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com or reach him directly via WhatsApp +2348100368288 Today marks my birthday. Please lets share this to help others. Thank you Dr Aziba for your Herbal product.

    ReplyDelete
  8. HERBAL DR EMU WHO PREPARE HERBAL MEDICINE TO CURE ALL KINDS OF DISEASES INCLUDING HERPES DISEASE.   
     I have been battling this Herpes disease for almost 3 years now....I tried all possible means to get cure from my Herpes Disease but all to be in vain until i saw a post in a health forum about a herbal Dr Emu who prepare herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases including Herpes Disease, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try...when i contact Dr Emu via his email (emutemple@gmail.com)  write him and reply me explain how the process work so after ordering for the medicine I got it within 3/4 working days through DHL Delivery and I took it according to the way Dr Emu instructed, I was so happy after 2 week I took the medicine there was very big change in my health when I was done with the process I go for test, I found out I am negative...Herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr Emu to get rid of these Herpes Virus forever his whatsapp number +2347012841542.

    ReplyDelete
  9. My name is Brittney Brian,i am from Arizona, Its a pleasure for me to write this testimony about how i got my Genital Herpes cured 2 months ago. i have been reading so many comments of some people who were cured from various diseases by Dr. Festus, I was hurt and depressed so I was too curious and wanted to try Dr. Festus cuz have been burdened by this virus for many , then i contacted him through his email when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out which he did, he healed me just as he promised, he sent me his medication and ask me to go for check up after 5 weeks of taking the medication. i agreed with him i took this medication and went for check up, to my greatest surprise my result was negative after the treatment, i am really happy that i am cured and healthy again. I have waited for 5 weeks after I first tested negative just to be very sure i was completely healed before writing this testimony I just got back from the hospital today from getting my blood test result and am still negative, so i guess its time i recommend anyone going through Herpes HSV-1 or HSV-2, HIV, HPV, Hepatitis A&B, Diabetes, Cancer reach him through Email drfestusherbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com OR add on whatsapp +2348073742265.

    ReplyDelete
  10. My name is Brittney Brian,i am from Arizona, Its a pleasure for me to write this testimony about how i got my Genital Herpes cured 2 months ago. i have been reading so many comments of some people who were cured from various diseases by Dr. Festus, I was hurt and depressed so I was too curious and wanted to try Dr. Festus cuz have been burdened by this virus for many , then i contacted him through his email when i contact him, he assured me 100% that he will heal me, i pleaded with him to help me out which he did, he healed me just as he promised, he sent me his medication and ask me to go for check up after 5 weeks of taking the medication. i agreed with him i took this medication and went for check up, to my greatest surprise my result was negative after the treatment, i am really happy that i am cured and healthy again. I have waited for 5 weeks after I first tested negative just to be very sure i was completely healed before writing this testimony I just got back from the hospital today from getting my blood test result and am still negative, so i guess its time i recommend anyone going through Herpes HSV-1 or HSV-2, HIV, HPV, Hepatitis A&B, Diabetes, Cancer reach him through Email drfestusherbalsolutioncentre@gmail.com OR add on whatsapp +2348073742265.

    ReplyDelete
  11. I have been a herpes carrier for 2 years and I tried every possible means
    of curing but all of no useful until I saw a health promotion on a
    herbalist from Africa who prepares herbal medicines to cure all sorts of
    diseases including cancer and many others sickness, I first doubted It was
    not true but decided to try, when I contacted this herbal physician via his
    email, I purchased herpes herbal medicine and received it within 7 days
    and used it as prescribed, I tested negative within 3 weeks of use, do not
    lose hope to contact him early If you need help, am convinced he can help you too,
    He is also special in curing 1.
    HIV/AIDS 2. HERPES 3. CANCER 4. ALS 5. HEPATITIS B 6. DIABETES 7. HUMAN
    PAPILLOMAVIRUS DISEASE(HPV) 8. ALZHEIMER 9. LUPUS (Lupus Vulgaris or Lupus Eratosthenes)ETC,,,,,, You can also visit his website:
    http://drchalaherbalhome.godaddysites.com
     email him on dr.chalaherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  12. HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]
    I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem, he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today. I asked him about some popular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, HPV etc.. which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure, he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all...
    Email:[ PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ]
    WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]

    ReplyDelete
  13. HOW DR AZIBA HELPED ME ENLARGE MY PENIS SIZE FROM 3.5 INCHES TO 11INCHES LONG AND 8.0 GROWTH WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]
    I got married 2 years ago and it just seemed that there was no excitement in my sex life. My dysfunction to perform to the best of my abilities in bed made it harder for my wife and me to have a good time during sex. And i was having the feelings that she may decide to get a divorce one day. I knew something had to be done in order to improve my sex life and to save my marriage because my marriage was already falling apart, so when i was on my Facebook page i came across a story of how Dr Aziba helped him enlarged his penis to 8ins better.so i Immediately copied the Email address of the Dr and explained to him my problem, he gave me some simply instruction which i must follow and i did easily and my friends Today, i am the happiest man on Earth, All Thanks to Dr Aziba for saving my marriage and making me a real man today. I asked him about some popular diseases like HERPES,HIV AIDS,HEPATITES,DIABETIS, CANCERS, WART, HPV etc.. which are affecting most people he said there is no disease without a cure, he has it all...You can as well reach the Dr below for help on your problem, for he has the solution to all...
    Email:[ PRIESTAZIBASOLUTIONCENTER@GMAIL COM ]
    WhatsAPP DR [ +2348100368288 ]

    ReplyDelete
  14. I want to use this opportunity to thank Dr Oyagu for the grate work he has done for me and my cousin sister, I was cured from herpes virus through his herbal remedy and my cousin sisters was also cured from Cancer. This is a grate testimony for what Dr Oyagu Has done for me and my entire generation. I’m giving this testimony so that those of you out there can contact him while he keeps saving my relatives. Send him a Dm and get a better health totally. Contact him via WhatsApp +2348101755322 or Email address:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com you can also reach him on his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome

    ReplyDelete
  15. HOW I WAS ABLE TO FLUSH OUT THE HERPES VIRUS WITH THE HELP OF DR. KHAM NATURAL PRODUCT, HIS EMAIL dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com. I was diagnosed with Herpes a year ago. It’s the worst thing that’s ever happened to me and  I feel like my life is over. Living with constant pain is something no one should have to go through, Herpes has also had a huge impact on my sleep . Since being diagnosed I’ve fallen so far into depression I see no way out because I have been to different hospitals. I’m taking a high dose of antidepressants, as well as sedatives and sleeping-pills. I don’t know how I’ll ever accept that this is my life now…I keep asking why me because now changes? But I guess reading your testimony really made me feel happy because i believe what i had from people out there who you also help to cure the herpes virus, and i believe so much with your herbal medicine i am going to be out of this bad situation like others you also help before, what we i have done if not for the herbal medicine that i requested for that was able to flush out the bad virus that was making me go crazy. people out there will thank this man called DR. KHAM, I will advise you to email him directly if you have diseases like herpes etc. dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or whatsapp him +2348159922297, you can also visit his website to know more about him at  https://herbal-dr-kham.jimdosite.com/

    ReplyDelete
  16. I found out, that taking herbal treatment is the best to get rid of hpv as soon as i feel the symptoms of hpv is appearing, i took the healing process by contacting Dr onokun for natural treatment it works wonders, amazingly ever since I had the herbal treatment i have not feel these horrible disease anymore and my doc told me the virus is gone, i am glad i finally got cured out from this horrible disease. every hpv or herpes patients should also get in touch with this herbalist Dr to get ride of these disease forever his email address; Dronokunherbalcure@gmail.com or page at: https://www.facebook.com/naturaltreatmentcenter1

    ReplyDelete
  17. Definitely and totally cured of herpes virus by Doctor Razor's Quick cure for Herpes. My Sincere Gratitude to Dr Razor, I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 November 13 2018, I went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, I was confused because the medical drugs has become my daily food, but i decided to sort after Natural Herbs. One day I sat beside the pool, Browsing and thinking where I could get a solution to end this predicament. I saw a blog on how Dr Razor cured people with his herbal medicine, i did not believe but i just decided to give him a try, Visit Doctor's Razor Website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome . I contacted him and he prepared the herbs for me which I took, and he instructed me to go for a check up, after the test i was confirmed with herpes negative, i am so happy. If you have any problem or you are also infected with any disease, kindly contact him now with his Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or Whatsapp/call +2349065420442This testimonial serves as an expression of my gratitude.
    He also have a herbal cure for COLD SORE,
    SHINGLES,
    CANCER(Cannabis Oil),
    HPV,
    ASTHMA,
    IMPOTENCE,
    BARENESS/INFERTILITY ..
    Contact him on this email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , or Whatsapp/call his cell phone number on +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  18. This is very helpful with no side effect...Before I began Doctor Aziba natural penis enlargement Product I measured 4 Inches in erect length, and 3 inches in erect girth. While flaccid I measured 3.4 Inches long. I began using his product, slightly skeptical I admit, and just 2 weeks later I was very happy with my progress. I measured 7.5 inches erect length and 6.5 inches erect girth, and 5.5 inches flaccid length. I was actually quite shocked at the huge gains I’d had, and continued using the product regularly, sticking to the usage schedule rigorously. After about 2-3 weeks I am 8.2 Inches in erect length and 8.1 Inches in erect girth. I am also 7.2 fnches long while flaccid. This has had a huge impact on my life, not only has my sex life improved greatly, I feel much more confident and proud. Dr Aziba Natural Penis Enlargement works! and you can as well reach out to him on any of these cure for ALS, HPV, HSV, HIV, HERPES, Virginal Infection, Heart Burn, Cancer etc... You can Get in Contact with his via Email: (Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp him via contact +2348100368288 His the solution you've been searching !







    This is very helpful with no side effect...Before I began Doctor Aziba natural penis enlargement Product I measured 4 Inches in erect length, and 3 inches in erect girth. While flaccid I measured 3.4 Inches long. I began using his product, slightly skeptical I admit, and just 2 weeks later I was very happy with my progress. I measured 7.5 inches erect length and 6.5 inches erect girth, and 5.5 inches flaccid length. I was actually quite shocked at the huge gains I’d had, and continued using the product regularly, sticking to the usage schedule rigorously. After about 2-3 weeks I am 8.2 Inches in erect length and 8.1 Inches in erect girth. I am also 7.2 fnches long while flaccid. This has had a huge impact on my life, not only has my sex life improved greatly, I feel much more confident and proud. Dr Aziba Natural Penis Enlargement works! and you can as well reach out to him on any of these cure for ALS, HPV, HSV, HIV, HERPES, Virginal Infection, Heart Burn, Cancer etc... You can Get in Contact with his via Email: (Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp him via contact +2348100368288 His the solution you've been searching !

    ReplyDelete