Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Cracking the Sugar Code

Cracking the sugar code: Why the 'glycome' is the next big thing in health and medicine

File 20180724 194149 1a8cg12.jpg?ixlib=rb 1.1
By molekuul_be/shutterstock.com
Emanual Maverakis, University of California, Davis; Carlito Lebrilla, University of California, Davis, and Jenny Wang, Yeshiva University

When you think of sugar, you probably think of the sweet, white, crystalline table sugar that you use to make cookies or sweeten your coffee. But did you know that within our body, simple sugar molecules can be connected together to create powerful structures that have recently been found to be linked to health problems, including cancer, aging and autoimmune diseases.

These long sugar chains that cover each of our cells are called glycans, and according to the National Academy of Sciences, creating a map of their location and structure will usher us into a new era of modern medicine. This is because the human glycome – the entire collection of sugars within our body – houses yet-to-be-discovered glycans with the potential to aid physicians in diagnosing and treating their patients.

Thanks to the worldwide attention garnered by the 2003 completion of the Human Genome Project, most people have heard about DNA, genomics and even proteomics – the study of proteins. But the study of glycans, also known as glycomics, is about 20 years behind that of other fields. One reason for this lag is that scientists have not developed the tools to rapidly identify glycan structures and their attachment sites on people’s cells. The “sugar coat” has been somewhat of a mystery.

Until now, that is.

While most laboratories focus on cellular or molecular research, our lab is dedicated to developing technology to rapidly characterize glycan structures and their attachment sites. Our ultimate goal is to catalog the hundreds of thousands of sugars and their locations on various cell types, and then to use this information to tailor medical therapies to each individual.

Why do we care about glycans?

In the future, it is likely that analysis of an individual’s glycans will be used to predict our risk for developing diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, cancer or even food allergies. This is because glycome alterations can be specifically tied to particular disease states. Also, biological processes like aging are linked to inflammation in our glycome. It remains to be tested if reversing these changes can help prevent disease, or even slow aging – an intriguing possibility.

Along with DNA, proteins, and fats, glycans are one of the four major macromolecules essential for life. Of these four, glycans are the final arbiters of how our cells behave.

DNA orchestrates what we look like, our capacity to think and behave, and even determines the diseases to which we are most susceptible. Within our DNA are short segments, genes, which often contain instructions for how to synthesize proteins. Proteins in turn are the “workhorses” of the cell, carrying out many of the functions necessary for life.

However, how a protein behaves often depends on what glycans are attached to it. In other words, these sugar molecules can greatly influence how our proteins do their work, and even how our cells will respond to stimuli. For example, if you change a few glycans on the outside of a cell, it might trigger that cell to migrate to a different location in our body.

The main job of glycans is to modify the proteins and fats that sit on the surface of our cells. Together, they create a thick sugar coat around the cell. If we consider the surface of the cell to be soil, then glycans would be the wonderfully diverse plant-life and foliage that sprout up and bring color and identity to the cell. In fact, if you were able to see a cell with your naked eye, it would look very fuzzy. Picture a peach with 10 times more fuzz.

Every single cell in the human body is covered with a collection of glycans which are assembled using various simple sugars like glucose, mannose, galactose, sialic acid, glucosamine and frucose as building blocks. By sensing the type of sugar coat present, our immune cells can identify other cells as friend or foe. This is because bacteria have sugars on their surfaces that are never seen on human cells – the pathogen’s sugars are sensed by the immune system and that identifies the bacteria as ‘foreign.’ Emanual Maverakis, CC BY-SA

Glycans label our own cells and identify them as ‘self’

The fuzz around a cell is its glycan coat. Being on the outside of our cells, glycans are the first point of contact for most cellular interactions and thus influence how our cells communicate with one another. You can also think of the glycans as a unique cellular “barcode.” Thus, a kidney cell’s fuzz will look different from an immune cell’s fuzz. But there are also similarities. In fact, the immune cells that survey our body searching for pathogens know not to attack our own “self” cells because of common features in the glycan “barcode” which are shared by all cells of our body.

In contrast, bacteria and parasites like malaria have different “sugar coats” that are not seen on human cells. When bacterial sugars are tagged as “foreign,” a person’s immune system targets the bacterium for destruction. However, some harmful bacterial pathogens like group B streptococcus, which commonly cause severe infections in babies, can avoid immune detection by impersonating human cells by carrying similar glycans as a disguise – like the wolf dressed in sheepskin.

Unfortunately some pathogens are also able to use our glycans to help them cause disease. Deadly viruses like HIV and Ebola have evolved to grab hold of specific glycans which they then “lock” onto as they infect our human cells. Therapies that either block these viruses from interacting with our glycans, or that attack virus-specific glycans may be a new avenue to treating these infections.

The sugars on our cells and on bacterial cells label them as friend or foe. Emanual Maverakis, CC BY-SA

New research has also shown that glycans play a huge role in the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune pancreatitis. This is not surprising since glycans directly influence the function of immune cells.

Normally, our immune cells act as our body’s “defense system,” and identify and destroy foreign invaders like harmful bacteria or viruses. But when the body mistakenly labels our own cells as the enemy and launches an internal attack on itself, autoimmunity is born. Interestingly, in such instances, it is the glycans present on the misbehaving self-attacking antibodies that will dictate the strength of the attack on the body. This abnormal immune response can even be directed against glycans. For example, the immune system can mistake “self” glycans as if they were “foreign” molecules. Our research team recently published an article that introduced the glycan theory of autoimmunity, which explains some of these relationships.

Glycans in our food can trigger immune responses

There have been many studies linking consumption of red meat with diseases like atherosclerosis and diabetes, but they have not been able to show why or how this occurs until recently. One intriguing study suggests that the culprit was a sugar with the unwieldy name, nonhuman sialic N-glycolylneuraminic acid, or Neu5Gc for short. Neu5Gc is found in all mammals except humans, because the early humans that could make Neu5Gc died from an ancient malarial parasite.

However, although we now lack the ability to produce Neu5Gc, our bodies still have the ability to incorporate it into the glycans on our cells if we obtain it by eating red meat. Once it becomes part of our cells’ glycan coat, our cells then have a “foreign” substance – Neu5Gc – surrounding them. This can trigger inflammation throughout the body because our immune system recognize Neu5Gc as “foreign” and attacks it. The chronic inflammation caused by these internal attacks can lead to heart attack, stroke and even cancer.

Our bodies synthesize tens of thousands of unique glycans, often with branching structures formed from simple sugar building blocks. Proteins or fats can also be modified by dozens of unique glycans. These countless combinations make mapping glycans a difficult task because we need a practical and efficient way to analyze hundreds of thousands of glycan patterns.

Our research team has now developed methods to rapidly and robustly monitor the human glycome. By capitalizing on engineering advancements and improvements in sample processing, our technique can monitor thousands of glycans at once, which allows us to characterize the glycans in cells from healthy controls and patients with a variety of different diseases. Our goal is to use this data to develop predictive models to help clinicians diagnose and treat all human diseases. We believe that a new wave of medical advancements will arrive as we unlock the “sugar code.”

Jenny Wang was the co-lead author of this article.The Conversation

Emanual Maverakis, Associate Professor- Departments of Medical Microbiology & Immunology and Dermatology | Member- Foods For Health Institute | Member- Comprehensive Cancer Center | Director- Autoimmunity | Director- Immune Monitoring Core, University of California, Davis; Carlito Lebrilla, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, and Jenny Wang, Clinical Research Fellow, University of California, Davis | Medical Student, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

28 comments:

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      I've Used Dr Aziba Product to solve my Penis Growth problem of 3.8 inches to 9.0 Inches in Less than Seven Days.
      Two hours after starting the Product, I began to feel its results. My penis was tingling (but it did not hurt), and little by little it was growing. Three days later, it already measured 6.6 inches. I had to do absolutely nothing because it was completely automatic. Six days later, I had gained one more Eight inch. The result: 8.1 inches! I began to feel more confident as I slept with my Girlfriend, who is always willing to do the dirty. In the end, she told me a lot has changed in me and i now gives her so much orgasms in half an hour. i'm recommending you with similar problem to Get In Contact with Doctod Aziba via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com & WhatsApp (+234)810-0368-288 For Help!

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    ReplyDelete
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  15. This comment has been removed by the author.

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    Replies
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  16. I've Used Dr Aziba Product to solve my Penis Growth problem of 3.8 inches to 9.0 Inches in Less than Seven Days.
    Two hours after starting the Product, I began to feel its results. My penis was tingling (but it did not hurt), and little by little it was growing. Three days later, it already measured 6.6 inches. I had to do absolutely nothing because it was completely automatic. Six days later, I had gained one more Eight inch. The result: 8.1 inches! I began to feel more confident as I slept with my Girlfriend, who is always willing to do the dirty. In the end, she told me a lot has changed in me and i now gives her so much orgasms in half an hour. i'm recommending you with similar problem to Get In Contact with Doctor Aziba via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com & WhatsApp (+234)810-0368-288 For Help!







    I've Used Dr Aziba Product to solve my Penis Growth problem of 3.8 inches to 9.0 Inches in Less than Seven Days.
    Two hours after starting the Product, I began to feel its results. My penis was tingling (but it did not hurt), and little by little it was growing. Three days later, it already measured 6.6 inches. I had to do absolutely nothing because it was completely automatic. Six days later, I had gained one more Eight inch. The result: 8.1 inches! I began to feel more confident as I slept with my Girlfriend, who is always willing to do the dirty. In the end, she told me a lot has changed in me and i now gives her so much orgasms in half an hour. i'm recommending you with similar problem to Get In Contact with Doctor Aziba via Email: Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com & WhatsApp (+234)810-0368-288 For Help!

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  17. Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

    ReplyDelete
  18. HOW I WAS ABLE TO FLUSH OUT THE HERPES VIRUS WITH THE HELP OF DR. KHAM NATURAL PRODUCT, HIS EMAIL dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com. I was diagnosed with Herpes a year ago. It’s the worst thing that’s ever happened to me and  I feel like my life is over. Living with constant pain is something no one should have to go through, Herpes has also had a huge impact on my sleep . Since being diagnosed I’ve fallen so far into depression I see no way out because I have been to different hospitals. I’m taking a high dose of antidepressants, as well as sedatives and sleeping-pills. I don’t know how I’ll ever accept that this is my life now…I keep asking why me because now changes? But I guess reading your testimony really made me feel happy because i believe what i had from people out there who you also help to cure the herpes virus, and i believe so much with your herbal medicine i am going to be out of this bad situation like others you also help before, what we i have done if not for the herbal medicine that i requested for that was able to flush out the bad virus that was making me go crazy. people out there will thank this man called DR. KHAM, I will advise you to email him directly if you have diseases like herpes etc. dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com or whatsapp him +2348159922297, you can also visit his website to know more about him at  https://herbal-dr-kham.jimdosite.com/

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  19. Definitely and totally cured of herpes virus by Doctor Razor's Quick cure for Herpes. My Sincere Gratitude to Dr Razor, I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 November 13 2018, I went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, I was confused because the medical drugs has become my daily food, but i decided to sort after Natural Herbs. One day I sat beside the pool, Browsing and thinking where I could get a solution to end this predicament. I saw a blog on how Dr Razor cured people with his herbal medicine, i did not believe but i just decided to give him a try, Visit Doctor's Razor Website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome . I contacted him and he prepared the herbs for me which I took, and he instructed me to go for a check up, after the test i was confirmed with herpes negative, i am so happy. If you have any problem or you are also infected with any disease, kindly contact him now with his Email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or Whatsapp/call +2349065420442This testimonial serves as an expression of my gratitude.
    He also have a herbal cure for COLD SORE,
    SHINGLES,
    CANCER(Cannabis Oil),
    HPV,
    ASTHMA,
    IMPOTENCE,
    BARENESS/INFERTILITY ..
    Contact him on this email: drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , or Whatsapp/call his cell phone number on +2349065420442

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  20. This is very helpful with no side effect...Before I began Doctor Aziba natural penis enlargement Product I measured 4 Inches in erect length, and 3 inches in erect girth. While flaccid I measured 3.4 Inches long. I began using his product, slightly skeptical I admit, and just 2 weeks later I was very happy with my progress. I measured 7.5 inches erect length and 6.5 inches erect girth, and 5.5 inches flaccid length. I was actually quite shocked at the huge gains I’d had, and continued using the product regularly, sticking to the usage schedule rigorously. After about 2-3 weeks I am 8.2 Inches in erect length and 8.1 Inches in erect girth. I am also 7.2 fnches long while flaccid. This has had a huge impact on my life, not only has my sex life improved greatly, I feel much more confident and proud. Dr Aziba Natural Penis Enlargement works! and you can as well reach out to him on any of these cure for ALS, HPV, HSV, HIV, HERPES, Virginal Infection, Heart Burn, Cancer etc... You can Get in Contact with his via Email: (Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp him via contact +2348100368288 His the solution you've been searching !








    This is very helpful with no side effect...Before I began Doctor Aziba natural penis enlargement Product I measured 4 Inches in erect length, and 3 inches in erect girth. While flaccid I measured 3.4 Inches long. I began using his product, slightly skeptical I admit, and just 2 weeks later I was very happy with my progress. I measured 7.5 inches erect length and 6.5 inches erect girth, and 5.5 inches flaccid length. I was actually quite shocked at the huge gains I’d had, and continued using the product regularly, sticking to the usage schedule rigorously. After about 2-3 weeks I am 8.2 Inches in erect length and 8.1 Inches in erect girth. I am also 7.2 fnches long while flaccid. This has had a huge impact on my life, not only has my sex life improved greatly, I feel much more confident and proud. Dr Aziba Natural Penis Enlargement works! and you can as well reach out to him on any of these cure for ALS, HPV, HSV, HIV, HERPES, Virginal Infection, Heart Burn, Cancer etc... You can Get in Contact with his via Email: (Priestazibasolutioncenter@gmail.com ) or WhatsApp him via contact +2348100368288 His the solution you've been searching !

    ReplyDelete
  21. Hello Am From The UK , I want to write a little testimony about the good work of doctor Oyagu who cured me from Hsv 1 and 2 for just 2 weeks with his herbal medicine, I never believe I can be normal again and have a good life like others I always regretted the day I got diagnose with the virus, I was lost of hope when my doctor told me there is no cure for it but I keep thinking and thinking about my future, if I can have kids of my own well I am so grateful for my helper who get me cured with his herbal medicine, I go online in search of anything that can help me because I can’t deal with it forever so I found this doc Oyagu email on a blog of someone who was cured by him I quickly contact him for help and explain all my pain to him, he told me not to worry about it there is cure for real, I never believe until he send me the herbal medicine when I order for it and I have it within 4 days that is how I took the medicine for 2 week and the following week I go for test just to confirm I was 100% cured from this sickness what a miracle in my life I am so happy right now, you can also get in contact with him if you have such sickness through email address oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or text him on what's app, phone number +2348101755322 or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Dr Oyagu also has remedy to others disease like COLD SORES,HIV/AIDS,DIABETES.CANCER,HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND MANY MORE. I oblige everyone to contact this powerful herbalist Dr Oyagu and be free from suffering.

    ReplyDelete
  22. I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past one years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr patrick and she also gave the email address: dr.patrickherbalhome@gmail.com of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. patrick telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the doctor assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email:: dr.patrickherbalhome@mail.com or whatsApp his number on+2348055367947   

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